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Raised Anion Gap > 12

Lactic acidosis - Lactate, D-lactate Types A & B
Diabetic Ketoacidosis - Beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate
Alcoholic ketoacidosis - seen with alcoholic and starvation and pancreatitis
Renal failure - Sulphate, phosphate, urate, and hippurate
Ingestions - Salicylate, methanol or formaldehyde (formate), ethylene glycol (glycolate, oxalate), paraldehyde (organic anions), sulphur (SO4-), phenformin/metformin vintage style items with lace decorated for a prom
Massive rhabdomyolysis (release of H+ and organic anions from damaged muscle)

Normal Anion Gap < 12

Renal Tubular acidosis
Gastrointestinal loss of HCO3-, eg, diarrhea, pancreatic ileostomy or ileal loop bladder
Diarrhoeal illness
Hypoaldosteronism (ie, type 4 RTA)
Recovery from diabetic ketoacidosis
Ammonium chloride
Chloride retention or administration of HCl equivalent or NH4Cl
Dilutional acidosis from rapid administration of 0.9% NaCl